German Federal Agency for Nature Conservation (BfN)



  • Dolezel,M., Miklau,M., Eckerstorfer,M., Hilbeck,A., Heissenberger,A., Gaugitsch,H. (2009): Standardising the environmental risk assessment of genetically modified plants in the EU. BfN-Skripten 259, 2009 (1,07 MB)
  • Hilbeck, A., Jänsch, S., Meier, M., Römbke, R. (2008): Analysis and validation of pre-sent ecotoxicological test methods and strategies for the risk assessment of genetically modified plants. BfN-Skripten 236, 2008 (4 MB).
  • Mertens, M. (2008) Assessment of Environmental Impacts of Genetically Modified Plants. BfN-Skripten 217, 2008. (1 MB)
  • Valenta, R., Spök, A. (2008) Immunogenicity of GM peas Review of immune effects in mice fed on genetically modified peas and wider impacts for GM risk assessment. BfN-Skripten 239, 2008. (1.328 kB).

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Title page

Breckling, B. und Verhoeven, R. (eds) (2004):

Risk Hazard Damage.
Specification of Criteria to Assess Environmental Impact of Genetically Modified Organisms.
Heft 01, 256 Seiten, Eur 20,00; ISBN 3-7843-3901-8

This volume presents twenty contributions of international experts in science and administration on:

- Expectations and anticipations of effects of genetically modified organisms (GMO)
- Novel aspects in environmental risk evaluation
- Legal aspects and monitoring
- Concepts of risk and perception in the society

While the industry attempts to turn the emerging properties of transgenic organisms into marketable products, the general public in Europe remains intransigently sceptical to accept genetically modified organisms as food or food ingredients.

In the heated public debate on GMO scientific arguments are likely to be used instrumentally from various sides - either to advertise or to demonise. Despite the intensity of the controversies, an important basis of decision, a central reference point of judgement remains widely obscured: What measure can be used to decide whether an environmental change, brought about by a certain type of genetically modified organism, is harmful or not?

It was this deficit that encouraged the Specialist Group on Gene Ecology of the Ecological Society of Germany, Austria and Switzerland to invite experts in order to critically evaluate experiences with the use of genetically modified organisms in agriculture as well as to present the state of scientific knowledge to operationalise the concepts of risk, hazard and damage.

Last Change: 03/06/2013