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The German Green Belt


In the shadow of the former border between East and West Germany, nature was more or less left to its own devices. Shortly after the fall of the Iron Curtain, BUND (Friends of the Earth Germany) organised a first meeting of eastern and western German nature conservationists at which they signed a declaration on conservation of this strip of land. 

That marked the birth of the ‘Green Belt’, which has since grown to become a major conservation project involving a wide range of nature conservation agencies and organisations that are working successfully together for 25 years now.


Latest entry: Anniversary: 25 years of the German Green Belt

Press-journey 25 years of the German Green Belt - Group photo taken at the Brietzer Teiche in Saxony-Anhalt (© BUND-Projektbüro Grünes Band)
A group photo with a banner saying "25 years Green Belt Germany" taken at the Bietzer Teichen in Saxony-Anhalt on occasion of a press-journey along the Green Belt.

To celebrate the anniversary "25 years of the German Green Belt", and as part of a project to close gaps in the Green Belt, BUND and BfN staged a joint press outing from 24-27 June 2014 along the Green Belt, from Lenzener Elbtalaue in the north across the Altmark, Südharzer Karstlandschaft and Werrabergland regions to the Grabfeld area in the south. At this press outing, not only sections that are intact and valuable but also some gaps within the Green Belt were presented. Approaches of how to close the gaps were introduced, aiming to convince the wider public that closing the gaps is worthwile and how it can be arranged.

From 3-5 October 2014, the Elbe River Landscape biosphere reserve is host to the 7th North-German Nature Conservation Days, which this year are dedicated to the Green Belt. On October 3rd 2014 the Burg Lenzen visitor and conference centre is staging an event with presentations and workshops on the 25th anniversary of the Green Belt.

Many other events on the Green Belt, including talks, exhibitions, boat trips and much more besides, are being held in the 2014 anniversary year.


Germany's Green Belt

logo German Green Belt

Nature was able to grow undisturbed for decades along the former German-German border, not just in the officially designated no-man’s land but also – thanks to the isolated location – in large areas to either side. A map of the Green Belt resembles a string of beads, with large areas of high conservation value between areas of cleared, intensively farmed countryside. It is thus an important axis in the German national ecological network. It links a range of mostly extensively grazed open-countryside habitats in alternation with rivers, lakes, and pioneer, mixed and coniferous woodland.

The Green Belt at the 'Große Bruch' area, Saxony-Anhalt; photo: K. Leidorf
Photo of the Green Belt at the 'Große Bruch' area, Saxony-Anhalt; photo: K. Leidorf

Habitat Green Belt

In 2012, 63.3 percent of the Green Belt area and no less than 76.4 percent of the open countryside in the Green Belt was accounted for by endangered habitat types (categories 1-3 of the 2006 Red List of Habitat Types in Germany). The Green Belt is also home to over 1,200 threatened animal and plant species.

Adjoining orderly, intensively farmed countryside, it often serves an important purpose as the sole remaining refuge for a large number of threatened animal and plant species that are sensitive to disturbance.

Usage conflicts

On the other hand, some 13 percent of the Green Belt area has been impaired or destroyed by intensive grazing, arable farming, built development, afforestation, quarrying or tipping.

Although the Green Belt has long been a target of nature conservation work, only 68 percent of its area was protected in 2012 in the form of nature conservation areas, national parks, biosphere reserves or Natura 2000 sites. The remaining area is inadequately protected if at all. This is important in that much of the Green Belt is privately owned land where land use interests often take priority over conservation.

Management measures

A73 autobahn junction near the former inner-German border (Green Belt) south of Eisfeld, Thuringia; photo: Uwe Riecken
View of the A73 autobahn junction near the former inner-German border (Green Belt) south of Eisfeld, Thuringia; photo: Uwe Riecken

Fuller legal protection is therefore urgently needed to prevent further fragmentation and destruction of the Green Belt. In addition, in many areas it is vital for management measures to be applied in order to conserve and develop the Green Belt and so to safeguard its nature conservation value. This requires good cooperation with the farming, forestry, waterways and other sectors.

At the same time, much has already been achieved to protect and promote the natural development of the Green Belt since 2001/2002, when the Green Belt Inventory testing and development project first demonstrated the high conservation value of the Green Belt on the basis of its exceptionally rich diversity of largely endangered species and habitats and its special place in the ecological network. The project assessed the need for action at various policy and practical levels and developed ideas for potential projects. 



Last Change: 23/07/2019

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